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From Elation in Reims to Execution in Rouen

Jeanne d’Arc fulfilled her central mission with the crowning of King Charles VII in Reims on July 17 1429, just a little over five months since she set out from Vaucouleurs on February 12. This was a remarkable achievement.

Continued Action against the English

Rather than returning to her home in Domremy, she turned her attention to driving the English out of France. The newly-crowned King, however, was more interested in making a truce or failing this, an armistice with the Burgundians who were allied with the English.  Jeanne led the French armies to a modest victory in a number of inconclusive skirmishes.

Jeanne d’Arc’s Military Travels, from Reims to Compiegne

An assault on Paris – the largest city in Europe at the time – was begun on August 25. This was unsuccessful and the French withdrew from the attack on September 8. Jeanne was wounded in the assault – for the fourth time. Further attacks in Burgundian territory took place, with success at St. Pierre de Mouthier on November 2 but with failure at La Charite in November-December. The King had disbanded the much of the royal forces, leaving a smaller army with Jeanne.

Capture at Compiegne

Capture

Capture at Compiegne

Capture

Jeanne entered a period of relative inactivity during the winter of 1430 but began military actions again in the spring time. On May 23, at an assault on the Burgundians who had laid siege to Compiegne, she was captured. Then came seven months in captivity with the Burgundians,

On January 3, 1431, she was acquired by Pierre Cauchon, Bishop of Beauvais, in whose territory she had been captured, with the English paying the ransom. The professors of the University of Paris pressed the case for handing Jeanne to Church officials rather than the English military authorities.

The French King had refused to pay the ransom.

The “Trial of Condemnation”

The religious procedures against Jeanne began on January 9, 1431. She was tried in an Ecclesiastical Court organized by Bishop Cauchon (Ph.D., former rector of the University of Paris). She faced 62 leading Church and Inquisition officials and theological professors from the University of Paris.

Bishop Pierre Cauchon’s Interrogation, by Paul Delaroche, 1797-1856

The motivation of the English was to remove Jeanne as an inspiration for the French armies, in hopes that the tide of battle would then turn in their favor. Bishop Cauchon and the church officials were willing partners in the proceedings though the English applied pressure on them. Cauchon had his eye on further religious promotion. The ecclesiastical officials supported the claim of the English King to the throne.

Jeanne faced her persecutors and judges alone, with no legal counsel and with little advance notice of the arguments to be brought against her. She was isolated, poorly nourished, in worsening health, unkempt, and perhaps abused by her guards who remained in the prison cell with her. She was denied access to churches and Communion which were so important to her.

Nonetheless, judging from the transcripts of the trial, she defended herself skillfully despite the tricks and ruses that were used against her. In the words of Mark Twain in his essay entitled Saint Joan of Arc:

Although she was on trial for her life, she was the only witness called on either side; the only witness summoned to testify before a packed jury commissioned with a definite task: to find her guilty, whether she was guilty or not. She must be convicted out of her own mouth, there being no other way to accomplish it. Every advantage that learning has over ignorance, age over youth, experience over inexperience, chicane over artlessness, every trick and trap and gin devisable by malice and the cunning of sharp intellects practiced in setting snares for the unwary — all these were employed against her without shame; and when these arts were one by one defeated by the marvelous intuitions of her alert and penetrating mind, Bishop Cauchon stooped to a final baseness which it degrades human speech to describe. A priest who pretended to come from the region of her own home and to be a pitying friend and anxious to help her in her sore need was smuggled into her cell, and he misused his sacred office to steal her confidence; she confided to him the things sealed from revealment by her Voices, and which her prosecutors had tried so long in vain to trick her into betraying. A concealed confederate set it all down and delivered it to Cauchon, who used Joan’s secrets, thus obtained, for her ruin.

Throughout the Trials, whatever the foredoomed witness said was twisted from its true meaning when possible, and made to tell against her; and whenever an answer of hers was beyond the reach of twisting it was not allowed to go upon the record. It was upon one of these latter occasions that she uttered that pathetic reproach — to Cauchon: “Ah, you set down everything that is against me, but you will not set down what is for me.”

Not surprisingly, she was found guilty.  Her crimes were wearing mens’ clothes, attempting suicide, sorcery with regard to her “voices”, and refusal to submit to the “church militant.”

On May 24, 1431 she was burned alive at the stake at the central marketplace in Rouen as a “relapsed heretic, idolater and apostate.”

Preparing for Execution

Burning Alive at the Stake, Photo of stain glass window at Orleans Cathedral; photo by Arch Ritter

The ecclesiastical kangaroo court that condemned Jeanne, under pressure from the English, stands as a disgraceful monument to ecclesiastical and institutional corruption. Bishop Cauchon’s name lives in infamy for his vile twisting and distorting of the facts in fabricating the case against Jeanne. Likewise, the Professors of the University of Paris disgraced themselves deeply for their willingness to kowtow to the English military authorities and for their role in the trial.

The “Trial of Rehabilition”

Jeanne d’Arc, at Compiegne

In 1455-1456, a new trial was held in view of the irregularities of the 1430 trial. Presumably it was awkward for King Charles VII to have been crowned King through the efforts of one who had been convicted and executed for sorcery, heresy and apostasy. The trial was brought about through the efforts of Jeanne’s Mother and Brothers who, with the help of the Papal legate in France , persuaded Pope Callixtus III to reopen the case. The French church agreed with some hesitation but also undoubtedly with damage-limitation in mind.

In the trial, some 150 witnesses were summoned from the various stages of Jeanne’s life from Domremy to Compeign. Their testimony upheld Jeanne’s courage, honesty and virtue. The Court declared Jeanne’s innocence and found that the trial of condemnation had been based on false accusations. Jeanne was declared a martyr and Cauchon was implicated in heresy.

Vieux Marche, Rouen,  where Jeanne d”Arc was Burned at the Stake, October 29, 2012

Some Further Sources:

Trial of Condemnationhttp://www.stjoan-center.com/Trials/index.html#condemnation

Biographical sketch of Charles VII,   http://xenophongroup.com/montjoie/chas_vii.htm

Trial of Joan of Arc, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trial_of_Joan_of_Arc

Bishop Pierre Cauchonhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Cauchon

Edward Lucie-Smith, Joan of Arc, London: Penguin Books, 1976 (not available on line.)

Regine Pernoud, Joan of Arc By Herself and her Witnesses, Lantham Maryland,: Scarborough House, 1994. (The definitive history of Joan of Arc in her own words and those of the witnesses transcribed in her Trial of Condemnation and Trial of Rehabilitation. Not available on the Web.)

Rouen Cathedral, 1944; War Damage

Rouen, 1944

Unrepaired Souvenirs of World War II, Central Rouen

Approximate Location where Jeanne’s Ashes were Thrown in the Seine

The Seine River at Rouen, with a Midway in the background

The French Naval Vessel Jeanne d’Arc in avana Harbour, April 2012

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To the Coronation at Reims

By Joan and Arch

After leaving Troyes, Jeanne went on to Chalons with the dauphin and an ever increasing army, men fired into action by her presence, willing to fight at their own expense. Chalons surrendered and they continued to Sepsaults just outside Reims where Charles once again hesitated and the Remois stalled. Joan convinced Charles to move forward and on Saturday July 16, a delegation from the city finally agreed to ally Reims with the royal cause and preparations were made for the coronation the next day!

Reims, 1695, Closer to its Appearance in 1429

The entry to the Cathedral, even today, is impressive. Looking up the wide boulevard from the river, the Cathedral fills the square about 1 kilometer ahead.

Reims, October 29, 2012, Photo by Arch Ritter

Jeanne rode up this boulevard with throngs of people crushing forward to see her, more interested in her than the dauphin! At her side was the dauphin, soon to be King Charles along with some 60 members of the Garde Ecossaise and much of her army.

They came into the church together, Joan bearing her standard. When asked at her trial of condemnation about the presence of her standard she replied ‘It had born the burden and it is right that it have the honor.’ When I read this passage to Arch my eyes teared up. After some 600 years, Jeanne is still communicating an important message of affirming what one knows is right even in face of criticism and condemnation from authorities.

 Coronation

Joan of Arc at the Coronation. July 17, 1429

We spent time in the beautiful cathedral and went to the service on Sunday morning absorbing the energy of the place and absorbed in our thoughts. The sermon was about the blind man outside of Jerusalem who Jesus restored sight to: where are we blind? When do we lack insight into our actions? I think of Joan and am humbled, inspired to continue on my own path.

We were sitting in the Choir area, in a spot that must have been a few feet from where the dauphin was crowned King, with Jeanne d’Arc nearby, in her armour and holding her standard.

War Damage

War Damage

We walked to the church of Saint-Remi a few kilometers away where the holy ampulla containing the holy oil used for the coronation is still kept. The church, much simpler than the cathedral, has a special feeling. Jeanne seemed present, at least for us, as we explore the city.

Choir, Abbey of Saint Remi, Reims

Reims Cathedral, October 27, 2012, Photo by Arch Ritter

Interior Rems Cathedral, from the Choir

The Vesle Canal, Reims Centre

Statue in front of Reims Cathedral, circa 1945

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Jeanne d’Arc: Relieving the Siege of Orleans

In late April 1429, after she was equipped with a suit of armour provided by the citizens of Tours and had her pennant made by the Scotsman Hamish Power also in Tours, Jeanne set out with the armies of the dauphin and the key commanding officers or “captains.”

Her presence in the armies of France as a commander in chief but without prior experience must have been ambiguous. She was part mascot, part cheerleader, part talisman but quickly becoming an unorthodox but effective military leader – according to two military historians who have examined her military record. (Joan of Arc as a Military Commander, by John Egan and Joan of Arc: A Military Appreciation, by Stephen Richey.) She managed to win the support of the “captains’ and the affection from some, notably the famous “La Hire.” She was also an inspiration and a catalyst for the soldiers, attracting numerous recruits to the French cause. She led the soldiers  into battle at ultimate personal risk. Indeed she was wounded in her first battle at Orleans and captured on the front line later at Compiegne.

The battle at Orleans was complicated and difficult. It has been described and analysed in various places including the web site SIEGE OF ORLÉANS (1428-1429) and THE LOIRE VALLEY CAMPAIGN (1429).

The English had been laying siege to the town (of some 30,000 citizens) since 1428 with some 5,500 English and Burgundian soldiers. They had built protective towers and fortifications around the town and were trying to starve it into submission and capture it by force. The French forces approached the end of April and Joan and her army entered on April 29, 1429 – about 10 weeks after she had left Vaucouleurs.  The French armies, with Joan at the forefront, then fought the English and by May 8 they had been vanquished and retreated. 

 Orleans, 1429

Orleans: Map of Military Situation, April 29, 1429 

 Jeanne d’Arc at the Battle of Orleans

 Battle of Orleans

 Jeanne Enters Orleans  

“The disparate array of forces defending Orléans was drawn together with the appearance of Jeanne d’Arc, and there developed a unity of focus in their actions. There were no signs of a great religious conversion, though the era was ripe for popular acceptance of mysterious Divine intervention. For those warriors at the time who might not accept the Divine, they recognized a pragmatic military value in the sentiment and found it easy to go along with drama.

The 4 May attack appears to have evolved from a minor demonstration but fueled by group emotion that can be traced to the appearance and the excitement demonstrated by Jeanne. She did not appear to have specifically formulated the action, but joined in — and certainly became a dominant ‘leader’ of the critical attack. This action reflects the circumstances that pertain to most all of the military actions related to the siege and the subsequent operations. Many of the French initiatives were unplanned and could not be anticipated by the English. The degree of the enthusiastic involvement of the French militia was obviously inspired in part by Jeanne’s appeal that raised the resolve for group action. It was a real cheerleading performance. For though she exposed herself to harm and endured wounds, she did not exchange blows or personally cause direct harm to an enemy warrior. ”  (http://xenophongroup.com/montjoie/orleans.htm#map2) 

There is little left of the 1429 city of Orleans that Joan would have known. The Choir of the Cathedral and the reconstructed house where she stayed in the city is almost all that one can find of the old city. The walls have gone and very little if any housing of the era remains. This is due to various epochs of modernization and also probably to the destruction of the US-German fighting and shelling in WW II.

 War Damage, 1944, Orleans, facing the Cathedral of Saint-Croix

War DamageMore Damage

 The (Reconstructed) House where Joan of Arc stayed in Orleans, May 1429. One of the few remaining buildings of her era.

Tapestry of Jeanne d’Arc, Saint-Croix Cathedral, Orleans

Saint-Croix Cathedral, Orleans

 

Traditional Boats on the Loire at Orleans

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